Palestinians mourn their relatives killed in the Israeli bombardment of the Gaza Strip, in the hospital in Khan Younis, Dec. 3, 2023.
November 25 - December 1, 2023
Mapping the war
Israel and Hamas resume fighting after a week-long truce breaks down
Following the end of a seven-day truce, the IDF resumed its offensive, expanding its operations into the southern part of the Gaza strip. Raids and mass arrests have intensified in the West Bank, while Hezbollah and the IDF have continued to exchange fire across the Lebanese border. Meanwhile, Yemen-based Houthi rebels have escalated their attacks on shipping in the Red Sea, while U.S. forces shot down drones and killed militia members in Iraq believed to be planning an assault on U.S. targets.
Israel formally declared war for the first time since 1973 following a surprise attack by Hamas militants on October 7, 2023 that killed over 1,200 Israelis and captured over 200 more as hostages. Since then, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) have carried out a sustained bombing campaign against Hamas targets, while ground troops have conducted large-scale offensives in the northern Gaza Strip.
The Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project, or ACLED, is a nongovernmental organization that collects and analyzes data on political violence worldwide. This story uses ACLED data to track reported instances of violent conflict in Israel and the surrounding region across four categories: battles, explosions/remote violence, intercepted attacks and violence against civilians. The map shows the previous week of events according to ACLED data. Scroll through the categories below to see each type of event and its reported location, along with an explanation of the groups involved and their capabilities.
On the Battlefield
A seven-day truce during which over 100 hostages were released by Hamas ended as negotiations over the release of further hostages broke down. Israeli forces have resumed both bombing and ground operations, expanding their offensive into the southern Gaza Strip and exchanging fire with Palestinian militants. Israeli military raids have also intensified in the West Bank, particularly around the Jenin refugee camp. Two Hamas gunmen who opened fire on civilians in Jerusalem were also killed by off-duty Israeli soldiers. (Updated: December 4, 2023)
The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) is considered one of the most highly trained and best-equipped militaries in the Middle East, maintained through mandatory conscription of most non-Arab citizens over age 18. In addition to 169,500 active duty personnel and 465,000 reservists, the IDF also has over 2,200 tanks, 530 artillery pieces, 339 combat aircraft, 142 helicopters, 49 naval ships and five submarines.
Following the attacks by Hamas, the IDF mobilized over 350,000 reservists. A significant portion of its forces have been stationed near the border with the Gaza Strip. Twenty-five battalions have also been deployed to the West Bank as violent clashes between Palestinian residents and Israeli settlers have intensified. Additional troops have also been deployed to the northern border with Lebanon following attacks from the militant group Hezbollah.
Number of battles per day
In Israeli and Palestinian-controlled areas.
Hamas, a U.S.-designated terrorist group, operates as both a civil administration and a militant organization in the Gaza Strip. Its armed wing, the al-Qassam Brigades, is estimated to have up to 40,000 fighters, with an arsenal of guns, drones, bombs and rocket artillery that is locally manufactured and smuggled in from abroad. The group uses a vast network of tunnels for storage, training and military operations, which allow it to avoid detection by Israeli surveillance.
During the October 7 attacks, Hammas also used improvised civilian equipment, including pickup trucks, bulldozers and paragliders. Meanwhile, the Palestinian Authority in the West Bank has no military capability outside of its police force, which is 45,000 strong and has weaponry ranging from handguns to light machine guns, as well as a few armored vehicles.
There are also a number of militant groups such as the Jenin Brigades and the al-Aqsa Martyrs’ Brigades that operate in the area.
The number of armed clashes in the region between November 25 - December 1, 2023 This category tracks any violent altercation between two or more armed groups that involves some degree of direct engagement or return fire, even if remote strikes or attacks on civilians also occur as part of the same event. Multiple altercations between the same parties within the same day are usually recorded as a single battle.
Explosions and Remote Violence
Israel’s renewed offensive has entailed both ground operations and airstrikes, with the IDF reporting that it had hit over 400 purported Hamas targets in the first 24 hours following the end of the truce. IDF drones have also conducted airstrikes in the West Bank. Meanwhile, Hezbollah has fired anti-tank missiles and rockets across the Lebanese border, and the IDF has responded with artillery fire and fighter jet strikes on targets in South Lebanon. Iranian-backed Houthi rebels in Yemen also fired missiles at both commercial and military ships in the Red Sea, damaging one vessel. (Updated: December 4, 2023)
Rockets and mortars launched over the Gaza border fence are the primary means by which Hamas and other militant Palestinian groups attack Israeli targets. Rockets like the Qassam and al-Quds models used by these groups have ranges up to 16 kilometers, are easy to manufacture, fuel with common materials and do not require specialized launchers. Because they lack any guidance or targeting mechanism, they are generally launched indiscriminately toward populated areas, with anywhere from dozens to thousands fired in any given year.
Hamas also possesses a smaller number of more advanced missiles such as the Iranian-made Fajr-5 and the Syrian-made Khaibar-1, with ranges up to 150 kilometers. While most rockets are intercepted by Israeli defenses, some have killed small numbers of civilians and wounded hundreds more, along with causing significant property destruction and psychological impact. More recently, Hamas has also developed drones such as the Ababeel 1, capable of suicide attacks and dropping explosives.
The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) have over 500 sophisticated ground-based artillery systems such as the M270 and the PULS (Precise and Universal Launch System), capable of firing multiple types of munitions ranging from Predator Hawk precision rockets to Delilah cruise missiles at ranges up to 400 kilometers. Israel’s air force boasts over 300 planes and 142 helicopters, and the country maintains hundreds of unmanned aerial vehicles used for reconnaissance as well as attacking ground targets. Israel is also believed to have significant chemical weapons capability, and has been criticized for its use of white phosphorus, which creates visual cover for military operations but can also cause severe burns to civilians.
This category tracks one-sided attacks carried out through remote methods such as airstrikes, drones, chemical weapons, artillery, missiles, rockets or other types of explosives. Targets may include civilians, armed groups or both. Multiple strikes or explosions that occur within a single area on the same day are usually grouped together and recorded as a single event.
Barrages of rockets and mortars were fired at Israel by Hamas and other Gaza-based militant groups amid the IDF’s renewed offensive following the end of a seven-day truce. While several injuries were reported, Israeli defenses have continued to intercept most projectiles fired from Gaza, as well as shooting down a suspected drone and rockets fired by Hezbollah across Israel’s northern border. U.S. forces also intercepted drones launched from Houthi-controlled territory in Yemen that were targeting commercial and military vessels in the Red Sea. (Updated: December 4, 2023)
Since its deployment in 2011, Israel’s Iron Dome has played a major role in conflict. The all-weather air defense system consists of a radar and tracking system that detects incoming rockets, a control center that determines their likely point of impact and threat likelihood, and a mobile battery of three to four independently maneuverable launchers with 20 Tamir interceptor missiles in each.
Ten Iron Dome batteries are deployed throughout Israel, with each able to protect up to 150 square kilometers of territory. Israel claims that the system has an interception rate of over 90%, though researchers have disputed this figure. Like any missile defense system, the Iron Dome can be overwhelmed by large amounts of projectiles, and some commentators have claimed it would not be effective against more advanced types of ballistic and cruise missiles.
An Iron Dome launcher fires an interceptor missile as rockets are fired from Gaza into Sderot, Israel, May 10, 2023. (Reuters)
The number of intercepted attacks in the region between November 25 - December 1, 2023 This category tracks all attacks prevented or disrupted by means other than direct engagement of the attacker, including but not limited to missiles and other projectiles being intercepted or missing their targets, bombs being defused or weapons being seized. This includes the shooting down of unmanned drones but not attacks on piloted military aircraft. Multiple interceptions within a given area on the same day are recorded as a single event.
Violence against civilians
Hamas gunmen killed three Israeli civilians when they opened fire at the entrance to Jerusalem; a fourth civilian was killed by off-duty IDF soldiers who mistook him for one of the gunmen. Meanwhile, civilian casualties in Gaza have mounted in the wake of a renewed Israeli offensive in southern parts of the Gaza Strip where civilians had fled to during earlier fighting in the north. Civilians have also been killed during recent IDF operations in the West Bank, particularly in the Jenin and Tulkarem governorates, and Israeli activists protecting a Palestinian village have been attacked by settlers. (Updated: December 4, 2023)
Before Israel’s 2005 withdrawal from Gaza, suicide bombings were a frequent occurrence. Since then, the fortified border fence has drastically limited direct contact between Gazans and Israeli civilians. The situation has remained more complex in East Jerusalem and in the broader West Bank, where Israelis and Palestinians live. A partially completed West Bank barrier wall is claimed by Israel to have drastically reduced suicide bombings and other hostile infiltrations, but Palestinian militant groups, as well as lone individuals, have continued to carry out attacks such as arson, kidnappings, lynchings, shootings and stabbings.
The situation is exacerbated by the building of Israeli settlements in the occupied territory of the West Bank, which has been declared illegal under international law and threatens the viability of a future Palestinian state. Some Israeli settlers have attacked Palestinians in addition to seizing Palestinian land and destroying Palestinian property and crops, while Israeli security forces have been accused of failing to prevent settler violence and directly assaulting Palestinian civilians.
The number of attacks against civilians in the region between November 25 - December 1, 2023 This category tracks any violence against unarmed noncombatants that is not already recorded elsewhere, including but not limited to extrajudicial killings, sexual violence, deliberate injury, abduction or forced disappearance. Civilians killed in airstrikes or during battles are recorded under the corresponding categories. Multiple acts of violence against the same group of civilians within the same day are recorded as a single event.